Fangshan Global Geopark of China is located in Xishan(Western Mountains) area, where is the convergence of Taihang Mountains and Yanshan Mountains on the edge of North China Plain. The Geopark strides across Fangshan District of Beijing, Laishui County and Laiyuan County of Hebei Province; the geographical coordinates: 114°36ˊ48〞~116°08ˊ16〞E, and 39°09ˊ57〞~39°43ˊ08〞N. The total area is 1045km², with its lengths extending 130.80km east-westerly, and width 75.09km south-northerly. The whole Geopark consists of eight scenic districts: Zhoukoudian scenic district(Palaeo-anthropological Site of “Peking Man”),Shihuadong scenic district, Shidu scenic district, Baihuashan-Baicaopan scenic district, Yunjusi-Shangfangshan scenic district, Shenglianshan scenic district, Yesanpo scenic district, and Baishishan scenic district.
The Geopark holds a long geological evolution with many geological remains and geological landforms: crystalline basement formed 2800Ma, the sedimentary cover of huge thickness from Proterozoic to Paleozoic, and Yanshan type intra-continental orogenic remains. The Geopark, where the Yanshan Movement is named after, has successively experienced Indosinion Movement, Yanshan Movement( early, middle, and late stages), and Himalayan Movement (early and late stages), and has resulted in a series of oregenic remains. Especially, because of the crust’s mobilization, the Yanshan type intra-continental orogenesis had exerted a powerful influences on the global evolution in Mesozoic and Cenozoic.
The Cenozoic is the period when the various landforms and geological remains in the Geopark had finally formed. Under the semi-arid and semi-moist climate of North China, the peak cluster with tremendous heights, the curtain-like peak-valleys with great lengths and deepness, the karstic caves with sparkling jades, as well as the flying-waterfalls with shining color clouds have altogether comprised of the magnificent scenery in the Geopark. Here are the mountains of grandness, water of tenderness, forests of silence, and peaks of loftienss.
The appearing of “Peking Man” in Zhoukoudian site about 500,000 years ago, is a most touching episode in the evolution of the Geopark. This event had opened the human evolution and started human being’s first “life’s symphony”. Zhoukoudian anthropological site was recorded in the “World Culture Heritage List” by UNESCO in 1987.
As the ancient capitals of six dynasties, Beijing has been a gathering place of various celebrities since ancient times. The magnificent Great Wall, exquisite ancient temples, vast number of Buddhist sutras, the nature-excelling workmanship of white marble are all wisdom’s crystallization of Chinese nation.
Fangshan Global Geopark of China is the starting point of Chinese civilization, the cradle of China’s geological survey, a gigantic scientific book written with stones by the nature, as well as a vast geological museum.